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About the book

This book, dedicated to the influential Danish spider ecologist Edwin Nørgaard, contains contributions by authors from 16 European countries, and reflects the current areas of interest for researchers working with spiders, scorpions and related animals in Europe.

It contains 46 original research articles and reviews covering a wide range of disciplines such as ecology and conservation, behaviour, physiology, morphology and systematics.

A particular section is devoted to reproductive behaviour, with papers on sexual selection, sperm competition in relation to the structure of female genitalia, emasculation and sexual cannibalism in spiders, and parthenogenesis in scorpions. Silk, the structure and function of spider webs and how they are built, form another section. There are papers on sampling methods and faunistic analyses of the biodiversity and conservation value of spider communities from several types of habitats (forests, dunes, bogs etc.) in various European countries.

Other papers deal with the value of spiders for agriculture, prey capture strategies, spiders' parasites, life cycles, neuronal mapping of reflex behaviour, the systematic classification of spiders and local faunistics.

Table of contents

Foreword

Colloquium photo

Dedication

Physiology, Ecology, Life History and Behaviour:
Tactile body raising: neuronal correlates of a 'simple' behavior in spiders
Distance of approach to prey is adjusted to the prey's ability to escape in Yllenus arenarius Menge (Araneae, Salticidae)
Cocoon care in the social spiderStegodyphus dumicola (Eresidae), Fungal and rickettsial infections of some East Asian trapdoor spiders
The influence of the 1997-1998 El Niño upon the Galápagos lycosid populations, and a possible role in speciation
Early sesason natural biological control of insect pests in rice by spiders - and some factors in the management of the cropping system that may affect this control
Responses of a detoxification enzyme to diet quality in a wolf spider Pardosa prativaga
Reproduction in scorpions, with special reference to parthenogenesis
Life history of Caribetityus elii (Armas & Marcano Fondeur, 1992) from the Dominican Republic (Scorpiones, Buthidae)
Structure of the ovariuterus of the Scorpion Euscorpius carpathicus (L.) (Euscorpiidae) before fertilization

Spider Webs and Silk:
Form and function of the orb-web
Radius orientation in the cross spider Araneus diadematus
A computerised method to observe spider web building behaviour in a semi-natural light environment
Linear and circular dichroism can help us to understand the molecular nature of spider silk

Sexual Selection and Sperm Competition:
Sexual selection in the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofaciata
Copulation and emasculation in Echinotheridion gibberosum (Kulczynski, 1899) (Araneae, Theridiidae)
Female genital morphology and sperm priority patterns in spiders (Araneae)
Morphology of female and male genitalia of Latrodectus revivensis Shulov, 1948 (Araneae, Theridiidae) with regard to sperm priority patterns

Spider Communities and Conservation Ecology:
Practical use of a single index to estimate the global range of rarity of spider communities in Western France
Regional variation in spider diversity of Flemish forest stands
Effects of winter fire on spiders
Epigeic spiders of alder swamp forests in Eastern Poland
Spider species and communities in bog and forest habitats in Geitaknottane Nature Reserve, Western Norway
Similarities between epigeic spider communities in a peatbog and surrounding pine forest: a study from southern Lithuania
Epigeic spider communities in inland dunes in the lowlands of Northern Germany
Distinctiveness of the epigeic spider communities from dune habitats on the Danish North Sea coast
The spider fauna of balks
The epigeic spider fauna of single-row hedges in a Danish agricultural landscape
The riparian spider fauna (Araneae) of the river Gaula, Central Norway: implications for conservation efforts

Regional Faunistics:
The spider fauna of Russia and other post-Soviet republics: a 2000 update
Altitudinal and biotopic distribution of the spider family Gnaphosidae in North Ossetia (Caucasus Major)
Spider fauna of peat bogs in southwestern Finland
Comments to the checklist of Gnaphosidae and Liocranidae (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Baltic States, with remarks on species new to Lithuania
Observations on the spider family Gnaphosidae (Araneae) in the nature reserve 'Oasis of Simeto' (Italy, Sicily)

Sampling methods:
Testing the efficiency of suction samplers (G-vacs) on spiders: the effect of increasing nozzle size and suction time
Suction sampling in alpine habitats: experiences and suggestions
An improved version of the 'aspirator gun' - a device for collecting arthropods

Taxonomy, Systematics and Evolution:
Why no subspecies in spiders?
Generic revision of some thomisids related to Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 and Ozyptila Simon, 1864
The significance of male pedipalpal characters for the higher systematics of the crab spider genus Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Araneae: Thomisidae)
A superspecies in the genus Amaurobius on Crete, and additional records from Greece (Araneae: Amaurobiidae)
Character states and evolution of the chelicerate claws
Ant mimicry by spiders and spider-mite interactions preserved in Baltic amber (Arachnida: Acari, Araneae)